Good Medicine for Conservation Biology: The intersection of epidemiology and conservation

(Leah Gerber, Kevin Lafferty)

EPIDEMIOLOGY (KEVIN)

Host density threshold

Target host

Intermediate host

Effect of generalist/reservior

Change in resistance (genetic diversity/pollution)

Change in parasite vital rates

Change in parasite death

Change in infected host death

 

 

CONSERVATION THEORY (LEAH)

PVA

Demographics

Variation in abundance over time

Sensitivity analysis

Management actions

Threats

Vital rates

Survival

Reproduction

Emmigration/Immigration

Conservation genetics

EPS

 

MAIN THREATS (all may interact, and have indirect effects) (KEVIN)

Habitat Alteration

Loss

Reduce N, but maintain density (may increase density)

May maintain diversity

Fragmentation

Edge effects, isolation

Degradation

Disturbance

Over exploitation

Hunting/Fishing

Reduce N

Cull infected

Cull healthy

Forestry

Monoculture

Introduced spp. & agriculture

Release from natural enemies (low founder, e.g., marine larvae)

Introduced pathogens

Introduced intermediate hosts

Indirect effects

Protecting range animals

Brucellosis

Climate change

Warm & wet (see Andy’s paper)

Stress

Increased susceptibility

Regime shift to tropical / low altitude

Indirect effects

Pathogen range expansion

Sea level change

Connect water masses

Change in wind and current patterns

UV

amphibians

CO2

Increase plant density?

Pollution

Aquatic

Eutrophication

Thermal effluent

Pulp-mill effluent

Crude Oil

Industrial effluent

Sewage sludge

Acid precipitation

Heavy metals

PCBs (Per can get unpub ref)

Terrestrial

Air pollution

Aerosols

Acid

Smog

Pulmonary Disease

Vegetation loss

Ozone

Nitrogen Deposition

Pesticides

Mining tails

Garbage/landfill

GOALS (LEAH)

Prevent extinction

Risk factors

Narrow range

Few populations

Small pop size

Low density

Large home range

Large body size

Low rates of increase

Poor dispersers

Migratory species

Little genetic var.

Specialized niche

Require undisturbed habitats

Aggregating behavior (suceptible to harvesting)

Hard to push below Host threshold?

Commercially exploited species

Maintain diversity (KEVIN)

Parasites as indicators

Role of parasites

Connel-Janzen

Trophic transmission / modification

ACTIONS (LEAH)

Reserves/Preservation

Size

Connectivity (look for corridors paper, scale in marine systems)

Number

Habitat Representation

Level of Protection

Recovery

Classification of T&E

Active Management

Protection

Captive Breeding/Reintroduction

Reduction of immunocompetency

Reduction in genetic resistance/variation

Evolution of virulent pathogens

Disease Intervention (When, KEVIN)

Andy’s Outline

Complex lifecycles allow more options