NCEAS Project 9400

Putting ocean wilderness on the map: Building a global GIS atlas of pristine marine environments

  • Benjamin S. Halpern
  • Hunter S. Lenihan
  • Fiorenza Micheli
  • Kimberly A. Selkoe

ActivityDatesFurther Information
Working Group26th—30th January 2005Participant List  
Graduate Student1st February—31st August 2005Participant List  
Working Group15th—16th August 2005Participant List  
Graduate Student7th November—17th December 2005Participant List  

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Abstract
Terrestrial conservation has long recognized the need for setting global priorities, and a common strategy for such efforts has been to focus on wilderness, or pristine, areas. Only recently have conservation groups begun to consider marine ecosystems, and efforts to take a global approach remain nascent at best. In order to move forward, conservation groups need global-scale data on which to base their priority models, but such data are currently highly dispersed and poorly synthesized. We propose a working group to address two questions that should greatly help close this gap: first, what is a pristine marine ecosystem, and second, where are the remaining pristine areas of the world┬┐s oceans? The definition of pristine will be based on an ecologically rigorous assessment of anthropogenic influences on marine ecosystems, and will guide us in identifying existing global-scale datasets that we will use to map the distribution of pristine areas across all marine environments. Our final product will be a GIS-based, interactive atlas of the pristine and impacted areas of the ocean that can be used as a practical tool by conservation groups in developing marine conservation priority models, by academic scientists in future ecological and biogeographic research, and by educators in efforts to increase awareness of ocean conservation needs.

TypeProducts of NCEAS Research
Journal Article Halpern, Benjamin S.; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Kappel, Carrie V. 2007. Evaluating and ranking the vulnerability of global marine ecosystems to anthropogenic threats . Conservation Biology. Vol: 21(5). Pages 1301-1315. (Online version)
Data Set Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ebert, Colin M. 2007. Ranking and mapping the impact of human activities on global ocean ecosystems. (Abstract) (Online version)
Journal Article Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Micheli, Fiorenza; D'Agrosa, Caterina; Bruno, John F.; Casey, Kenneth S.; Ebert, Colin M.; Fox, Helen; Fujita, Rod; Heinemann, Dennis; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Madin, Elizabeth M.P.; Perry, Matthew; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Spalding, Mark; Steneck, Robert S.; Watson, Reg. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science. Vol: 319. Pages 948-952.
Journal Article Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Selkoe, Kimberly A. 2008. Diminishing sea ice - Response. Science. Vol: 321. Pages 1444-1445.
Journal Article Halpern, Benjamin S.; Ebert, Colin M.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Madin, Elizabeth M.P.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Perry, Matthew; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Walbridge, Shaun. 2009. Global priority areas for incorporating land-sea connections in marine conservation. Conservation Letters. Vol: 2. Pages 189-196.
Book Chapter Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Selkoe, Kimberly A. 2010. Human impacts on marine ecosystems. Edited by Sodhi, N.S.; Ehrlich, P.R. Conservation Biology for All. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK. Pages 83-85.
Journal Article Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lester, Sarah E.; McLeod, Karen L. 2010. Marine Reserves Special Feature: Placing marine protected areas onto the ecosystem-based management seascape. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol: 107. Pages 18312-18317. (Online version)
Journal Article Kappel, Carrie V.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Martone, Rebecca; Micheli, Fiorenza; Selkoe, Kimberly A. 2009. In the zone: Comprehensive ocean protection. Issues in Science and Technology. (Online version)
Journal Article Micheli, Fiorenza; Walbridge, Shaun; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Ciriaco, S.; Ferretti, F.; Fraschetti, S.; Njkaer, L.; Lewison, Rebecca L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A. 2013. Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: Assessing current pressures and opportunities . PLoS ONE. (Online version)
Journal Article Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Micheli, Fiorenza; D'Agrosa, Caterina; Bruno, John F.; Casey, Kenneth S.; Ebert, Colin M.; Fox, Helen; Fujita, Rod; Heinemann, Dennis; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Madin, Elizabeth M.P.; Perry, Matthew; Selig, Elizabeth R.; Spalding, Mark; Steneck, Robert S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Watson, Reg. 2008. Response to comment on a global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science. Vol: 321. Pages 1446c.