Charles Otis Whitman (1850's?-1910)

"If a designer sets limits to variation in order to reach a definite end, the direction of events is teleological; but if organization and the laws of development exclude some lines of variation and favor others, there is certainly nothing supernatural in this, and nothing which is incompatible with natural selection. Natural selection may enter at any stage of orthogenetic variation, preserve and modify in various directions the results over which it may have had no previous control." (1919)

Leading American morphologist, embryologist, and behaviorist. Born about 1850. Founder of the Marine Biological Laboratories at Woods Hole, Massachusetts (1888), and of the Journal of Morphology. Argued for a blend of orthogenesis and micromutationist Darwinism that excluded Lamarckism. Posthumous study of pigeon behavior was a landmark in ethology.

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