Marcellin Boule (1861-1930's)

"It is probable, therefore, that Neanderthal Man must have possessed only a rudimentary psychic nature, superior certainly to that of the anthropoid apes, but markedly inferior to that of any modern race whatsoever. He had doubtless only the most rudimentary language..."

The leading French paleoanthropologist around the turn of the century. Boule's classic 1908 monograph convinced the world that Neandertals were a separate species, and indeed a terminal side-branch of the human evolutionary tree. He had a mixed reaction to the Piltdown "discovery," agreeing that the cranium was legimate but correctly recognizing that the jaw belonged to an ape. Boule was succeeded in his professorship by Arambourg.

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