Crausbay, Shelley; Ramirez, Aaron; Carter, Shawn; Cross, Molly S.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Bathke, Deborah J.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Colt, Steve; Cravens, Amanda E.; Dalton, Melinda; Dunham, Jason B.; Hay, Lauren; Hayes, Michael; McEvoy, Jamie; McNutt, Chad; Moritz, Max A.; Nislow, Keith; Raheem, Nejem; Sanford, Todd. 2017. Defining ecological drought for the 21st century. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. (Abstract) (Online version)
Droughts of the 21st 38 century are characterized by hotter temperatures, longer duration and greater spatial extent, and are increasingly exacerbated by human demands for water. This situation increases the vulnerability of ecosystems to drought, including a rise in drought-driven tree mortality globally (Allen et al. 2015) and anticipated ecosystem transformations from one state to another, e.g., forest to a shrubland (Jiang et al. 2013). When a drought drives changes within ecosystems, there can be a ripple effect through human communities that depend on those ecosystems for critical goods and services (Millar and Stephenson 2015). For example, the â€œMillennium Droughtâ€ (2002-2010) in Australia caused unanticipated losses to key services provided by hydrological ecosystems in the Murray-Darling Basinâ€”including air quality regulation, waste treatment, erosion prevention, and recreation. The costs of these losses exceeded AU$800 million, as resources were spent to replace these services and adapt to new drought-impacted ecosystems (Banerjee et al. 2013). Despite the high costs to both nature and people, current drought research, management, and policy perspectives often fail to evaluate how drought affects ecosystems and the â€œnatural capitalâ€ they provide to human communities. Integrating these human and natural dimensions of drought is an essential step toward addressing the rising risk of drought in the 21st 53 century.