Michalska-Smith, Matthew; Sander, Elizabeth L.; Pascual, Mercedes; Allesina, Stefano. 2017. Understanding the role of parasites in food webs using the group model. Journal of Animal Ecology. (Abstract) (Online version)
Parasites are ubiquitous and have been shown to influence macroscopic measures of ecological network structure, such as connectance and robustness, as well as local structure, such as subgraph frequencies. Nevertheless, they are often underÃ¢Â€Ârepresented in ecological studies due to their small size and often complex life cycles. We consider whether or not parasites play structurally unique roles in ecological networks; that is, can we distinguish parasites from other species using network structure alone? We partition the species in a community statistically using the group model, and we test whether or not parasites tend to cluster in their own groups, using a measure of Ã¢Â€Âœimbalance.Ã¢Â€Â We find that parasites form highly imbalanced groups, and that concomitant predation, in which a predator consumes a prey and its parasites, but not the number of interactions, improves the group model's ability to distinguish parasites from nonÃ¢Â€Âparasites. This work demonstrates that parasites and nonÃ¢Â€Âparasites interact in networks in statistically distinct ways, and that these differences are partly, but not entirely, due to the existence of concomitant predation.