Beck, Michael W.; Heck, Kenneth L.; Able, Kenneth; Childers, Daniel L.; Eggleston, David B.; Gillanders, Bronwyn; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hays, Cynthia; Hoshino, Kaho; Minello, Thomas; Orth, Robert J.; Sheridan, Pete; Weinstein, Michael P. 2001. The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. BioScience. Vol: 51. Pages 633-641. (Abstract) (Online version)
Nearshore estuarine and marine ecosystemsâ€”e.g., seagrass meadows, marshes, and mangrove forestsâ€”serve many important functions in coastal waters. Most notably, they have extremely high primary and secondary productivity and support a great abundance and diversity of fish and invertebrates. Because of their effects on the diversity and productivity of macrofauna, these estuarine and marine ecosystems are often referred to as nurseries in numerous papers, textbooks, and government-sponsored reports (Boesch and Turner 1984, NRC 1995, Butler and Jernakoff 1999). Indeed, the role of these nearshore ecosystems as nurseries is an established ecological concept accepted by scientists, conservation groups, managers, and the public and cited as justification for the protection and conservation of these areas. Nonetheless, the nursery-role concept has rarely been stated clearly, even in papers that purport to test it. This ambiguity hinders the effectiveness of the nursery-role concept as a tool for conservation and management. We seek to redress that ambiguity by briefly tracing the history of the concept, developing a clear hypothesis with testable predictions, and discussing how this work can focus efforts in research, conservation, restoration, and management.